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Republic of the Union of Myanmar
By: Neda Admin
  • 23 Mar. 2558
  • 490 View
Myanmar is governed by a military junta under the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). SPDC Chairman is the country ruler, and the Prime Minister is the government head.
 

General Information

Economic Conditions

 
Economic Sectors
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
Myanmar has a market economy, under strict regulatory control by the government.  Major economic sectors included agriculture of 40.9 percent, as followed by service sector of 39.3 percent and manufacturing of 19.8 percent (2008).
   1. Agricultural Sector: Major outputs include rice, teak, beans, sesame, rubber, sugar cane, cotton, maize, oil palm, cattle and fishery products.
   2. Services include wholesale and retail trade, banking and financial institutions, transportation, telecommunication, tourism and hotels.
   3. Manufacturing Sector include natural gas, oil, jewelry, ores, textile, consumer products, beverages and wooden furniture.
 

 

GDP
 
 
 
During 2006-2008, Myanmar registered an average GDP growth rate at 2.25 percent, i.e.
   In 2006, GDP valued at USD 5,274 Million.
   In 2007, GDP valued at USD 5,454 Million (up 3.41%).
   In 2008, GDP valued at USD 5,513 Million (up 1.08%).
 

 

GDP Per Capita
 
 
 
During 2006-2008, GDP per capita averaged at USD 1,166.67, i.e.
   In 2006, GDP per capita stood at USD 1,100.
   In 2007, GDP per capita stood at USD 1,200 (up 9.09%).
   In 2008, GDP per capita stood at USD 1,200 (unchanged).
 

 

อัตราเงินเฟ้อ
 
 
 
 
During 2005-2008, Myanmar’s inflation averaged at 25.03 percent, i.e.
   In 2005, inflation stood at 10.7 percent.
   In 2006, inflation stood at 25.7 percent.
   In 2007, inflation stood at 36.9 percent.
   In 2008, inflation stood at 26.8 percent.
 

 

Currency 
Kyat
 
  Foreign Exchange Rate

0.1934 Kyat = 1 Baht (December 2009)

 

 

FDI
 
 
 
During 2006-2008, foreign direct investment (FDI) to Myanmar averaged at USD 323 Million, i.e.
   In 2006, FDI stood at USD 428 Million.
   In 2007, FDI stood at USD 258 Million (down 39.72%).
   In 2008, FDI stood at USD 283 Million (up 9.69%).
 

 

International Reserves
 
 
 
 
 
During 2004-2008, Myanmar registered average international reserves at USD 1,687.8 Million.
   In 2004, international reserves stood at USD 685 Million.
   In 2005, international reserves stood at USD 782 Million (up 14.16%).
   In 2006, international reserves stood at USD 1,248 Million (up 59.59%).
   In 2007, international reserves stood at USD 2,312 Million (up 85.26%).
   In 2008, international reserves stood at USD 3,412 Million (up 47.58%).
 

 

External Debts
 
 
 
 
 

During 2004-2008, external debts of Myanmar averaged at 7,094.8 Million, i.e.
   In 2004, external debts stood at USD 7,239 Million.
   In 2005, external debts stood at USD 6,645 Million (down 8.21%).
   In 2006, external debts stood at USD 6,828 Million (up 2.75%).
   In 2007, external debts stood at USD 7,022 Million (up 2.84%).
   In 2008, external debts stood at USD 7,740 Million (up 10.23%).

   
 

International Trade Status of Myanmar

 

Trade Balance

During 2004-2008, Myanmar registered average trade surplus at USD 2,185.0 Million.
 

 

Trade Value
 
During 2004-2008, Myanmar registered average trade value at USD 7,494.6 Million, comprising average export value at USD 4,839.8 Million, and average import value at 2,654.8 Million.
 

 

Export
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Major export items included natural gas, timber, beans, garments, jewelry, minerals, rubber, marine food products.
Principal export markets are Thailand, USA, India.
Export Value
   In 2004, export value stood at USD 2,906 Million.
   In 2005, export value stood at USD 3,584 Million (up 23.33%).
   In 2006, export value stood at USD 5,191 Million (up 44.84%).
   In 2007, export value stood at USD 6,170 Million (up 18.86%).
   In 2008, export value stood at USD 6,348 Million (up 2.88%).
 

 

Import
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Major import items were, i.e. machinery, synthetic yarns, metal and metal products, crude oil, steel and transportation equipment.
Major import sources were, i.e. Thailand, Singapore and China.
Import Value
   In 2004, import value stood at USD 1,973 Million.
   In 2005, import value stood at USD 1,999 Million (up 1.32%).
   In 2006, import value stood at USD 2,911 Million (up 45.62%).
   In 2007, import value stood at USD 2,964 Million (up 1.82%).
   In 2008, export value stood at USD 3,427 Million (up 15.62%).
 
     
 

Thai-Myanmar Trade

 
Thai-Myanmar Trade Balance
 
During 2005-2008, Myanmar registered trade surplus with Thailand at USD 1,651.08 Million on average.
 

 

Thai-Myanmar Trade Value 
 
During 2005-2008, Thai-Myanmar trade averaged at USD 3,681.42 Million, comprising export value of USD 1,015.17 Million and import value of USD 2,666.25 Million Baht.
 

 

Thai-Myanmar Export
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Major export items to Thailand included natural gas, timber, processed wooden and wooden products, meats, ores, metals, metal scraps and products, fresh, cold, frozen, processed and semi-finished aquatic animals, vegetables, fruits, seasoning from vegetables and fruits, coal, plants and products.
Export Value
   In 2006, export value stood at USD 756.34 Million
   In 2007, export value stood at USD 957.86 Million (up 26.64%).
   In 2008, export value stood at USD 1,331.32 Million (up 38.99%).
 

 

Thai-Myanmar Import
 
 
 
 
 
 
Major import items from Thailand included finished petroleum products, iron, steel and steel products, chemical products, plastic pellets, and beverages.
Import Value
   In 2006, import value stood at USD 2,321.11 Million.
   In 2007, import value stood at USD 2,301.42 Million (down 0.85%).
   In 2008, import value stood at USD 3,376.22 Million (up 46.70%).
 

 

Thai-Myanmar Border Trade Status
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Border trade between Thailand and Myanmar takes place at 14 border passes.  There are three permanent border passes, one temporary border pass and ten checkpoints for border trade, at border provinces (Three Pagodas Pass is both a checkpoint for border trade and a temporary border pass).  During 2005-2008, the border trade value averaged at 106,176.75 Million Baht, comprising export value of 24,107.50 Million Baht, and import value of 82,069.25 Million Baht, or Thailand suffered trade deficit with Myanmar of about 57,961.75 Million Baht.

Major export items included vegetable oil, fabric, cloth, fuel and energy drinks.
Export Value
   In 2005, export value stood at 20,153 Million Baht.
   In 2006, export value stood at 18,898 Million Baht (down 6.23%).
   In 2007, export value stood at 22,181 Million Baht (up 17.37%).
   In 2008, export value stood at 35,198 Million (up 58.69%).
Major import items included natural gas, cattle, coal, furniture, fresh fish and fresh shrimp.
Import Value
   In 2005, import value stood at 64,120 Million Baht.
   In 2006, import value stood at 80,398 Million Baht (up 25.39%).
   In 2007, import value stood at 75,270 Million Baht (down 6.38%).
   In 2008, import value stood at 108,489 Million (up 44.13%).
     
 

Geographic Locations

  Location Myanmar is in Southeast Asia.
 

 

 
Borders
  
 
 
 
Myanmar borders five nations:
   North and Northeast: China (2,185 kilometers)
   Southeast: Laos (235 kilometers) and Thailand (2,401 kilometers)
   West: India (1,463 kilometers) and Bangladesh (193 kilometers)
   South: Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal
 
 
Thai-Myanmar Border
  
 

The borderline between Thailand and Myanmar is 2,400 kilometers long, in ten provinces, Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, Mae Hong Son, Tak, Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi, Phetchaburi, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Chumpon and Ranong.

 

  Area

Myanmar has the total area of 657,740 square kilometers, or approximately 1.3-fold over the size of Thailand.

 

 
Geography
 
 
 

Much of the country’s area is land, or 97 percent of the total area, and 3 percent is water.  Hkakabo Razi Mountain is along the border between Myanmar and India.  Arakan Yoma Mountain is in the West.  Plateau is in the Northeast.  Tanaosri Mountain is in the South dividing Thailand and Myanmar.  Irrawady or Ayeyawady river basin is in the Central region.

 

 
Climate
 
 

Myanmar climate is in a monsoonal tropical zone.  High rainfalls are found in front of Arakan Yoma Mountain, and arable land is in the upper central region, due to blockade by a high mountain.  The Northeastern region is cold and dry.

 

 
Capital
 

Naypyidaw is the capital of Myanmar (the 11th capital relocation in Myanmar’s history)

 

     
 

Society

 
Population
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total population is 48.1 million (2009), comprising 135 races and 8 major ethnic groups, i.e.
   - Bamar of 68 percent of total population,
   - Shan of 8 percent of total population,
   - Kayen of 7 percent of total population, and
   - Rakhine of 4 percent of total population
   - Chinese of 3 of total population
   - Mon of 2 of total population
   - Indian of 2 of total population
   - Others of 6 of total population
 

 

Birth Rate
 
 
 
 
 
 
During 2003-2009, an average birth rate in Myanmar is 4.96 percent, i.e.
   In 2003, total population is 53.2 million.
   In 2004, total population is 54.3 million (up 2.07%).
   In 2005, total population is 55.4 million (up 2.03%).
   In 2006, total population is 56.5 million (up 1.99%).
   In 2007, total population is 57.7 million (up 2.12%).
   In 2009, total population is 48.1 million (down 16.64%).
 

 

Density

Population density is 88 persons per square kilometer.

     
 

Political Situation

 
Administrative System
 
 
 
 
yanmar is governed by a military junta under the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC).  SPDC Chairman is the country ruler, and the Prime Minister is the government head.
   - SPDC Chairman is Senior General Than Shwe.
   - Prime Minister is General Soe Win.

 

Administrative Zones
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Myanmar divides its administrative zones into 7 states, mainly consisting of the minority groups of people, comprising:
   (1) Chin State, major city : Haka
   (2) Kachin State, major city : Myintgyinar
   (3) Kayin State, major city : Hpa-an
   (4) Kayah State, major city : Loikaw
   (5) Mon State, major city : Mawlamyaing
   (6) Rakhine State, major city : Sittwe
   (7) Shan State, major city : Taunggyi
There are 7 divisions for certain zones, with Bamar as the major population, comprising:
   (1) Ayeyawady, major city : Pathein
   (2) Bago, major city : Bago
   (3) Magway, major city : Magway
   (4) Mandalay, major city : Mandalay
   (5) Sagaing, major city : Sagaing
   (6) Tanintharyi, major city : Dawei
   (7) Yangon, major city : Yangon
 

 

 

 

 

National Economic and Social Development Plan of Myanmar 
 
 Before adopting the National Economic and Social Development Plan, the government of Myanmar launched a policy to hasten the development of infrastructure to accommodate economic development and foreign direct investment, including cooperation with its neighbors, i.e., China, Laos and Thailand.  This included a policy to promote development of agriculture and services (tourism).  At present, Myanmar has implemented four National Economic and Social Development Plans, each of which have main focuses, as below:
           1. The First Plan (1992-1995) (4 years) expedited development of agricultural, livestock and fishery sectors, including development of manufacturing and mining, as well as service sectors (tourism).
           2. The Second Plan (1996-2000) (5 years) expedited development of agro-industries and financial sector.
           3. The Third Plan (2001-2005) (5 years) emphasized:
                         - Agro-processing industries
                         - Expansion in manufacturing and agricultural production, with livestock and fishery outputs sufficient for domestic consumption and export
  - Expansion in reforestation
  - Quality of human resources, i.e. health, education and living conditions
 4. The Fourth Plan (2006-2010) (5 years):
  - Set an economic growth target at 10 percent
  - Expedite expansion in agricultural production
  - Expedite exploration of natural gas, oil and expansion in hydropower generation capacity
  - Reduction of poverty
  - Development of infrastructure
  - Development of financial and banking sectors
           
 
Sources:

1. Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
2. Office of the Board of Investment